2014-11-01 - 2017-10-31

Project Leader:

Prof. Dr. Nane Kratzke


Peter-Christian Quint


Current cloud computing related research focuses often Service Science related problems and therefore concentrates on aspects how to design, operate and deliver agile cloud based services according to a broad (economical as well as technological) understanding of the service term.

Beside common security, governance and cost forecast concerns, often technological vendor lock-in worries often come along with cloud computing, which is especially true for small and medium-sized enterprises.

But astonishing little research activities focus a technological point of view how to overcome technical vendor lock-in problems in cloud computing.

Therefore, this technological point of view is addressed particularly by this research project.


Current state of the art cloud based software services are often characterized by a highly implicit technological dependency on underlying hosting cloud infrastructures. The project Cloud TRANSIT investigates, how to design cloud based software services to reduce technological dependencies on underlying cloud infrastructures.

By designing and developing a generic cloud service description language, it should be possible to define secure, transferable and elastic services of typical complexity being deployable to any IaaS cloud infrastructure. Furthermore, it should be possible to migrate these services from one private or public cloud infrastructure to another (not necessary compatible) cloud infrastructure.

This kind of transferability reduces cloud infrastructure related technical vendor lock-in problems for small and medium sized enterprises.

Therefore, the project

  • analyzes several common public and private cloud infrastructures,
  • derives requirements for a generic cloud service description language.
  • For cloud services of typical complexity (distributed, load balanced, auto scaling)
  • a prototypic implementation of the description language is implemented
  • and a proof-of-concept is provided.


Lesezeichen Poster: Container- und Cluster-Technologien für Microservices


Poster: Container, Cluster-Technologien für Microservices (DE)

Poster: Projekt Cloud Transit Poster: Projekt Cloud Transit
Poster: Project Cloud Transit Poster: Proposing a Reference Model for Transferable Cloud-Native Applications


Refereed Articles and Book Chapters
[2017] Understanding Cloud-native Applications after 10 Years of Cloud Computing - A Systematic Mapping Study (Nane Kratzke, Peter-Christian Quint), In Journal of Systems and Software Elsevier, volume 126, 2017. [bib] [abstract]
It is common sense that cloud-native applications (CNA) are intentionally designed for the cloud. Although this understanding can be broadly used it does not guide and explain what a cloud-native application exactly is. The term "cloud-native" was used quite frequently in birthday times of cloud computing (2006) which seems somehow obvious nowadays. But the term disappeared almost completely. Suddenly and in the last years the term is used again more and more frequently and shows increasing momentum. This paper summarizes the outcomes of a systematic mapping study analyzing research papers covering "cloud-native" topics, research questions and engineering methodologies. We summarize research focuses and trends dealing with cloud-native application engineering approaches. Furthermore, we provide a definition for the term "cloud-native application" which takes all findings, insights of analyzed publications and already existing and well-defined terminology into account.
[2016] Vendor Lock-In im Cloud Computing! Was bringen Container und Container-Cluster? (Peter-Christian Quint), In OBJEKTspektrum, Ausgabe Online Themenspecial Microservices und Docker 2016, 2016. [bib]
[2016] Taming the Complexity of Elasticity, Scalability and Transferability in Cloud Computing - Cloud-Native Applications for SMEs (Peter-Christian Quint, Nane Kratzke), In International Journal on Advances in Networks and Services International Academy, Research, and Industry Association (IARIA), volume 9, 2016. [bib] [abstract]
Cloud computing enables companies getting computational and storage resources on demand. Especially when using features like elasticity and scaling, cloud computing can be a very powerful technology to run, e.g., a webservice without worries about failure by overload or wasting money by paid use of unneeded resources. For using these features, developers can use or implement cloud-native applications (CNA), containerized software running on an elastic platform. Nevertheless, a CNA can be complex at planning, installation and configuration, maintenance and searching for failures. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are mostly limited by their personnel and financial restrictions. So, using these offered services can facilitate a very fast realization of the software project. However, using these (proprietary) services it is often difficult to migrate between cloud vendors. This paper introduces C4S, an open source system for SMEs to deploy and operate their container application with features like elasticity, auto-scaling and load balancing. The system also supports transferability features for migrating containers between different Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms. Thus, C4S is a solution for SMEs to use the benefits of cloud computing with IaaS migration features to reduce vendor lock-in.
[2016] Project Cloud TRANSIT - Or to Simplify Cloud-native Application Provisioning for SMEs by Integrating Already Available Container Technologies (Nane Kratzke, Peter-Christian Quint, Derek Palme, Dirk Reimers), Chapter in European Project Space on Smart Systems, Big Data, Future Internet - Towards Serving the Grand Societal Challenges Scitepress (Verena Kantere, Barbara Koch, eds.), 2016. [bib]
[2016] Public Cloud Services an der Fachhochschule Lübeck: Betrachtungen zu wirtschaftlich sinnvollen Einsatzgebieten in Lehre und Forschung (Nane Kratzke, Andreas Hanemann), In Impulse - Aus Forschung und Lehre der FH Lübeck, volume 19, 2016. [bib]
[2015] How to Operate Container Clusters more Efficiently? Some Insights Concerning Containers, Software-Defined-Networks, and their sometimes Counterintuitive Impact on Network Performance (Nane Kratzke, Peter-Christian Quint), In International Journal On Advances in Networks and Services International Academy, Research, and Industry Association (IARIA), volume 8, 2015. [bib]
[2014] CloudTRANSIT - Sichere, plattformunabhängige und transferierbare IT-Services mittles einer generischen Cloud Service Description Language (Nane Kratzke), In ImpulsE - Aus Forschung und Lehre der FH Lübeck, volume 18, 2014. [bib]
[2014] A Lightweight Virtualization Cluster Reference Architecture Derived from Open Source PaaS Platforms (Nane Kratzke), In Open Journal of Mobile Computing and Cloud Computing (MCCC), volume 1, 2014. [bib]
[2014] Lightweight Virtualization Cluster - Howto overcome Cloud Vendor Lock-in (Nane Kratzke), In Journal of Computer and Communication (JCC), volume 2, 2014. [bib]
Refereed Conference Papers
[2017] Smuggling Multi-Cloud Support into Cloud-native Applications using Elastic Container Platforms (Nane Kratzke), In Proceedings of the 7th Int. Conf. on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER 2017), 2017. [bib]
[2016] Overcome Vendor Lock-In by Integrating Already Available Container Technologies - Towards Transferability in Cloud Computing for SMEs (Peter-Christian Quint, Nane Kratzke), In Proceedings of CLOUD COMPUTING 2016 (7th. International Conference on Cloud Computing, GRIDS and Virtualization), 2016. [bib]
[2016] ppbench - A Visualizing Network Benchmark for Microservices (Nane Kratzke, Peter-Christian Quint), In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER 2016), 2016. [bib] [abstract]
Companies like Netflix, Google, Amazon, Twitter successfully exemplified elastic and scalable microservicearchitectures for very large systems. Microservice architectures are often realized in a way to deploy servicesas containers on container clusters. Containerized microservices often use lightweight and REST-based mech-anisms. However, this lightweight communication is often routed by container clusters through heavyweightsoftware defined networks (SDN). Services are often implemented in different programming languages addingadditional complexity to a system, which might end in decreased performance. Astonishingly it is quite com-plex to figure out these impacts in the upfront of a microservice design process due to missing and specializedbenchmarks. This contribution proposes a benchmark intentionally designed for this microservice setting. Weadvocate that it is more useful to reflect fundamental design decisions and their performance impacts in theupfront of a microservice architecture development and not in the aftermath. We present some findings regard-ing performance impacts of some TIOBE TOP 50 programming languages (Go, Java, Ruby, Dart), containers(Docker as type representative) and SDN solutions (Weave as type representative).
[2015] About Microservices, Containers and their Underestimated Impact on Network Performance (Nane Kratzke), In Proceedings of CLOUD COMPUTING 2015 (6th. International Conference on Cloud Computing, GRIDS and Virtualization), 2015. [bib]
Refereed Workshop Papers
[2016] ClouNS - A Reference Model for Cloud-Native Applications (Nane Kratzke, Rene Peinl), In Proceedings of 20th. International Conference on Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Workshops (EDOCW 2016), 2016. [bib]
Other Publications
[2017] 80% der Cloud-Dienste sind nicht standardisiert (Nane Kratzke, Thomas Hafen), Interview Neue Mediengesellschaft Ulm mbH, volume 5, 2017. [bib]
[2016] Evaluation einer Cloudspeicher-Loesung bei einem Telekommunikationsunternehmen (Thomas Finnern), Technical report, Fachhochschule Lübeck, 2016. [bib] [pdf]
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